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Tuesday, 5 July 2011

Lahore

Lahore


Lahore
لاہور
لہور
—  City District  —
Clockwise from top: Kim's Gun, Badshahi Mosque, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Lahore Museum, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Fort and Minar-e-Pakistan

Emblem
Nickname(s): Paris of the East The Pearl of Punjab[4]
The garden of the Mughals
The cultural capital of Pakistan[7]
Data Ki Nagri (City of Ali Hujwiri)[8]
The heart of Pakistan
City of Gardens
Location of Lahore (in red) in Punjab, Pakistan and (inset) Punjab in Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″ECoordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E
Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
City District Government 11th September 2008
City Council Lahore
Towns 9
Government
 - Type City District
 - Divisional Commissioner Khusroo Pervaiz (D.M.G)
 - City Nazim
 - Naib Nazim
 - District Coordination Officer Ahad Khan Cheema (D.M.G)
Area[13]
 - Total 1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)
Elevation 217 m (712 ft)
Population (2009[14])
 - Total 10,000,000
  Combined population of Lahore City and Lahore Cantonment
Postal code 54000
Dialling code 042[15]
Website lahore.gov.pk
Lahore Cantonment is a legally separate military-administered settlement.
Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور; pronounced [laːˈɦɔːr] ( listen)) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi. The city lies along the Ravi River, situated approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the Wagah border crossing and is 32 kilometres (20 mi) from the Indian city of Amritsar.
Historically, Lahore has been a center of cultural heritage for many civilizations. It successively served as regional capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th century, the Mughal Empire in the 16th century, the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and it was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj in the mid 19th and early 20th century. The traditional capital of Punjab for a thousand years, Lahore was the cultural center of the northern Indian subcontinent extending from Peshawar to New Delhi. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist attractions for the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Mughal-Gothic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office, Lahore Museum and many older universities including the University of the Punjab. The Lahore Zoo, world's third oldest zoo, is also situated here.

Economy

Economy

The Liberty Roundabout or Al-Falah Square is an important economic center of Lahore.
Head office of the PIA in Lahore
As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent.[66] This is at par with Pakistan's other economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008).[66] The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%.] Lahore's GDP is projected to be $102 billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%.[66][70] Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). Lahore’s economic base is broad and varied. The city is the engineering hub of the country.[citation needed] Major industries include the manufacture of automobiles and motorcycles, home appliances, steel, telecommunications, information technology, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, engineering, and construction material.[citation needed] A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.[71] Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.[71] The city is the country’s largest software producing center,[71] and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.[71]

Transportation

Transportation

The Lahore Ring Road
The M-2: the Lahore-Islamabad motorway
Lahore is one of Pakistan's most accessible cities and the only city in the country where one can find public and private transportation 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This includes public buses, as well as thousands of rickshaws and taxis, which run on compressed natural gas to reduce pollution in the city. About 75% of residents have their own conveyances. The roads in the city are well maintained and are broadened when needed to meet increasing demand.
The Lahore Ring Road (LRR) Project was launched on December 22, 2004 at a groundbreaking ceremony attended by President General Pervez Musharaf. The LRR Project is a large road project being developed by the Punjab Government, intended to ensure efficient and speedy movement of freight and passengers, to alleviate traffic flow problems, and to boost the city's potential for industrial development. The project includes the construction of a six-lane divided highway, interchanges, RCC bridges, reinforced earth abutments and walls, overhead pedestrian bridges, culverts, tunnels, underpasses, flyovers and related works, at a total projected cost of over Rs. 20 billion and Rs. 13 billion respectively.
The Wagah Border on the Grand Trunk Road near Lahore and Amritsar. The road was historically the main route of travel from Lahore to Delhi.[91] Today, it is one of the few trade routes between India and Pakistan.[92]
In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. Road), motorways connecting all major cities (Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.) have been built. A motorway to Sialkot is under construction. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. The government would undertake planned rehabilitation of the roads, which have outlived their designed life, construction of missing road links and development of province-wide secondary arteries linking national motorways and trade corridors to foster economic opportunities via meeting expanding domestic and international travel and trade demands.

Demographics


Demographics

An aerial view of the skyline in the Population
According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. Mid-2006 government estimates put the population at somewhere around 10 million, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi.[96] It is considered to be one of the 30 largest cities of the world.

Language

Punjabi is the native language of the province and is the most widely spoken language in Lahore. Punjabi is the primary means of communication in both the city and adjoining rural areas. Punjabi has no official status in Lahore and some Punjabi activists has raised demands for recoginition of Punjabi.[97] English has become increasingly popular with educated and younger people due to its official status in government and preferred language status for business. Many Punjabi speakers in Lahore are known as Majha Dialect Of Punjabi. According to the 1998 census, 86.2% or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis; 10.2% or 816,000 are Urdu speakers and the Seraikis, at 0.4%, number about 32,000.[98]
Sacred Heart Cathedral.

Religion

According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Sunni or Shia Muslim, up from 60% in 1941.[original research?] Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population), and a small number of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Parsis, and Sikhs. Due to Lahore's diverse culture, there are many mosques, shrines, synagogues, Hindu and Jain temples, Sikh Gurudwaras, and churches across the city. Some of the most famous

Monday, 4 July 2011

Sports

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport in Lahore.
Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium now boasts a capacity of over 60,000. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, the Al Hamra, open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey stadium, Another Cricket Ground and Headquarters of Pakistan Cricket Board, all based in the city's Sports complex. In the same vicinity lie headquarters of the Pakistan Football Federation, as well as the multi-sport Punjab Stadium.
Lahore is home to Lahore Lions and Lahore Eagles in Twenty-20 Cup, as well as to Pakistan Premier League giants WAPDA FC, Pakistan Railways FC, PEL FC, and Wohaib FC. In addition to cricket and football, Kabaddi, a South Asian team sport, is also popular in Lahore. Many citizens play Kabbadi after work.
Lahore's elites are very fond of golf. The city is home to 7 spectacular golf courses. Two more are under construction which will bring the total to 9. Among them the most popular are the Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course and the Bank Alfalah Mini Golf Course.

Education

Education

Quaid-e-Azam Library, Lahore
Lahore is known as Pakistan's education capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in the country. Lahore is Pakistan’s largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics.[98] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%.[99]
Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes: Government College Lahore (now Government College University), established in 1864; Forman Christian College, a chartered university established in 1864; University of the Punjab, established in 1882;[100] Kinnaird College, established in 1913; and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), established in 1921. UET is also Pakistan's oldest technical degree-awarding institute and its first university in the field of engineering and technology.
Lahore's institutes in the fields of computer science, IT, and engineering include the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES or FAST-NU) and Punjab University College of Information Technology. Notable architecture schools include Beaconhouse National University, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, University of South Asia, National College of Arts and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore. Notable business schools include the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore School of Economics, Forman Christian College, and University of Management and Technology. University of Education, established in 2002, is Pakistan's first specialized university in the field of education.

Parks and gardens

Parks and gardens

An artificial waterfall at Jilani Park.
Shalamar Gardens is a Persian garden built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.[96]
The Lahore Zoo is the second oldest zoo in the South Asia after Calcutta and has been a source of amusement and recreation for families for more than a 100 years. In December 2004, Pakistan and China signed a $110 million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore.[97] The result was Sukh Chayn Gardens, a beautiful housing society full of lush green parks and gardens.